Licentiate degrees vary widely in their meaning, and in a few countries are doctoral level qualifications. Sweden awards the licentiate degree as a two-year qualification at doctoral level and the doctoral degree (PhD) as a four-year qualification.  Sweden originally abolished the Licentiate in 1969 but reintroduced it in response to demands from business.  Finland also has a two-year doctoral level licentiate degree, similar to Sweden's.  Outside of Scandinavia, the licentiate is normally a lower level qualification. In Belgium, the licentiate was the basic university degree prior to the Bologna Process and was approximately equivalent to a bachelor's degree,   while in France and other countries it is the bachelor's-level qualification in the Bologna process.  In the Pontifical system, the Licentiate in Sacred Theology (STL) is equivalent to an advanced master's degree, or the post-master's coursework required in preparation for a doctorate (. similar in level to the Swedish/Finnish licentiate degree), while other licences (such as the Licence in Canon Law) are at the level of master's degrees. 
. The grading committee appoints a chairperson from among its members.
. The opponent is entitled to be present at meetings with the grading committee and to participate in discussions, but not in decisions.
. The supervisor is entitled to be present at meetings with the grading committee and to participate in discussions, but not in decisions. If several supervisors have been appointed, this regulation shall apply to the principal supervisor. Under special circumstances, assistant supervisors may also attend.
. The grading committee is a quorum when all members are present. The decision of the majority of the committee’s members shall constitute a decision by the committee. If the thesis is passed, the reasons for the committee’s decision may not be recorded in the minutes or in any other document. The same applies for the reasons that an individual member may have put forward in opposition to other members, or in a different order.
. However, if the thesis is failed, the reasons for the committee’s decision may be recorded in the minutes or in any other document. The same applies for the reasons that an individual member may in such cases have put forward in opposition to other members, or in a different order.
Initially, PhD student submits the final version of the dissertation electronically into the Qualification Theses Database (in PDF format) in ISIS information system. The proper electronic submission has to be confirmed by the following notification: “Correct submission of the thesis confirmed – The electronic version of the dissertation was submitted and the correct submission was confirmed. The submission process is hereby finished. The thesis cannot be modified anymore.” Only after this step, the dissertation and other requested documents may be submitted for a Defense.(During submission, ISIS information system requires Abstract and Keywords in English).