UMDES study participants who lived along the TR had one near-river soil, and vegetation sample analyzed for PCDDs, PCDFs and PCBs. Because the cattle grazed over a relatively wide area along the river FP, averaging of soil and vegetation measurements obtained from properties in the vicinity of the index case (including the index case) would likely provide a better index of exposure of cattle to FP contamination. Mean 2,3,4,7,8-pentaCDF concentrations in soil and vegetation based on six near-river samples obtained from the vicinity of the index case’s property were 1,250 pg/g dry weight for soil (range, –3,790 pg/g dry weight) and 122 pg/g dry weight for vegetation (range, –315 pg/g dry weight). The corresponding concentration of 2,3,4,7,8-pentaCDF in beef calculated according to Equations 1 and 2 amounts to 1,780 pg/g lipid in beef lipid (range, 30–6,820 pg/g lipid) or 180 pg/g wet weight in beef meat (range, 3–680 pg/g wet weight). The beef lipid mean value is more than three orders of magnitude greater than the maximum concentration of pg/g lipid observed for commercial beef in the United States. This finding indicated that the cows raised by the index case were likely heavily contaminated ( Ferrario et al. 1996 ).
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